Makarantar Hausa: Ma’anar Nahawun Hausa

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Ban san wani abu ba, da zan fada wanda ba a fada ba, game da Nahawun Hausa, sai dai Hausawa sun ce “Mai rai bai rasa motsi”. Saboda haka, zan dan ce wani abu game da wannan Nahawu na Hausa.

Ina sane da cewa, manyan malamai sun yi bayani mai yawa game da wannan sha’ani na Nahawun Hausa, Kamar su M.K.M Galadanci, Dauda Bagari, Hambali Jinju, Ahmadu Bello Zariya da kuma Sani Zariya. Tabbas wadannan malamai sun yi bayani mai yawa game da Nahawun Hausa. Kuma har yanzu kokarinsu ne manazarta da malamai da dalibai ke biye.

Ni ma kaina kokarin wadannan malamai ne na tsaya na duba, sai na yi wani abu mai kama da abin da Hausawa kan ce, “An yi tsintuwar guru cikin sudi”. Watau na gano wasu abubuwa masu yawa a cikin nazarce-nazarcensu.

Idan mutum ya duba zai iya ganin karantarwata ta dan bambanta da karantarwar magabata. Wannan ba abin mamaki ba ne, tunda sha’anin ilimi haka ya gada. Kuma ma an ce “Da Na gaba akan gane zurfin ruwa”.

 

MA’ANAR NAHAWU

A nawa ra’ayi, Nahawu shi ne ilimin da ke nazari kan ka’idojin gina jimla mai ma’ana, tare da da bayyana rukunin kowace kalma da ke Jimla, hade da fayyace matsayin kowace kalma da ke jimla, hade da kulawa da ingancin wasalin karshen kowace kalma da ke jimla.

Idan an kula da wannan ma’ana da na bayar ta Nahawu, za a ga a wurina Nahawu ya tsaya ne kacokam, kan nazarin abubawa hudu:

  1. Jimla mai ma’ana
  2. Rukunin kalma
  3. Matsayin kalma
  4. Ingancin wasalin karshen kalma

 

JIMLA MAI MA’ANA

Jimla dai ita ce cikakkiyar magana mai gamsarwa.

To kafin jimla ta kasance mai gamsarwa, sai ta kasance a tsare, kamar yadda Bahaushe kan tsara ta. Misali:

 

  1. Audu dalibi ne
  2. Audu ne dalibi
  3. Dalibi ne Audu

 

Bahaushe haka yakan tsara kalmomi, idan yana son nuna dalibtakar Audu. A nan ilimin Nahawu zai tabbatar da cewa wadannan jimloli sun tsaru daidai da yadda Bahaushe kan tsara. To amma idan aka ce:

  1. Ne dalibi Audu
  2. Ne Audu dalibi

A nan Nahawu zai duba ya ce, wadannan jimloli ba su yi ba, saboda Bahaushe bai cewa haka idan ya tashi tsara jimla kan dalibtakar Audu.

Wannan shi ne ake nufi da cewa, Nahawu na nazari kan k’idar gina jimla mai ma’ana.

 

RUKUNIN KALMA

Rukuni kalma ce ta Larabci. A Hausance tana da ma’anoni, daga ciki akwai NAU’I. Watau idan aka ce abubuwa suna rukuni daya, ana nufin nau’insu daya, game da abin da ya hada su. To a nan ma, idan na ce rukunin kalma ina nufin nau’inta. Misali:

 

  KALMA                  RUKUNI

  1. Mutum               Suna
  2. Makaho              Sifantau
  3. Karfi                    Sifa
  4. Duba                   Aiki
  5. Watau                 Harafi

 

Idan an kula, an sami rukunai da ban-da ban. Watau a cikin kalmomin Hausa, akwai wadanda ke rukunin suna, sifantau, sifa, aiki da harafi.

To, ilimin Nahawu hakkinsa ne ya yi wa mai karatu bayanin wadannan rukunai na kalmomi.

 

MATSAYIN KALMA

Kamar yadda Nahawu ke bincike kan rukunin kalmomi, haka kuma yana bincike kan matsayin kalmomi a jimla. Misali, Nahuwu ne ke gaya wa mai karatu, wannan kalma matsayinta ma’aikaci a jimla. Wannan kuwa ita ce mafadar aiki, waccan kuwa bayanau ce.

 

INGANCIN WASALIN KARSHEN KALMA

Ingancin wasalin karshen kalma yana nufin sa wasali a karshenta kamar yadda ya kamata. Misali:

  1. Musa Audu ya mara
  2. Musa Audu ya maro
  3. Musa Audu ya mare

A duba wasalin karshen kalmar (MARA) a jimla ta (1), za a ga an saka wasalin (a). A jimla ta (2), kalmar (MARO), tana da wasalin (o), a karshenta. A jimla ta (3), kalmar (MARE) tana na da wasalin (e) a karshenta. Wannan yana nufin, idan Bahaushe za ya jinkirtar da kalmar aiki ta MARI a bayan ma’aikaci to zai yi amfani ne da dayan wasula uku a wannan kalma. Wadannan wasula su ne: a, o, da e. Sake duba wannan jimla:

Musa ya mari Audu

Kula da wasalin kalmar (MARI), za ka ga tana da wasalin (i). Wannan yana nufin, idan Bahaushe ya gabatar da ma’aikaci a kan aiki na kalmar MARI, to zai yi amfani ne da wasalin (i) kadai a karshen kalmar.

To, yanzu duba wadannan jimloli:

  1. Musa  Audu ya maru
  2. Musa Audu Ya mari
  3. Musa Ya maru Audu

 

Wadannan jimloli gaba-daya ba su yi ba, saboda an sami rashin ingancin wasalin karshen wasu kalmomi a ciki. Duk wannan akan gane shi ta hanyar ilimin Nahawu.

A takaice dai, mun gano Nahawu dai na binciki ne kan abubuwa hudu: Jimla mai ma’ana, rukunin kalma, matsayin kalma da ingancin wasalin karshen kalma.

Bari mu kwana a nan, a mujalla ta gaba za mu dora a inda muka kwana.

Daga: Bello Muhammad Danyaya

 

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